entablature over a mantle, door or window. A characteristic (particularly of classical architecture) by which the two sides of a facade or architectural floor plan of a building present mirror images of one another. A high-speed door is a very fast door some with opening speeds of up to 4 m/s, mainly used in the industrial sector where the speed of a door has an effect on production logistics, temperature and pressure control. Omissions? Of others in South Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant Andrea, Amalfi (1060); Salerno (1099); Canosa (1111); Troia, two doors (1119 and 1124); Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made doors for Trani cathedral; and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by Bonano of Pisa. According to the US General Services Administration, discussing child care centres: ...It is essential that children's fingers be protected from being crushed or otherwise injured in the hinge space of a swinging door or gate. In the lower panels there are figures 3 ft (0.91 m). Door weatherstripping is particularly important for energy efficiency. These concerns are typically mitigated with plug doors, which open in towards the pressurized compartment and are forced into their door frames by the difference in air pressure. These were used in historic English houses, mainly as servants' doors. Other door safety products eject the fingers from the push side of the door as it closes. . Vehicle doors present an increased risk of trapping hands or fingers due to the proximity of occupants. The devotion of the ancient Greeks to the house built around a court led to an almost total disappearance of windows in their architecture, since each room was lighted by a door to the central, colonnaded court. Those of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze, and the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (9th century), of similar manufacture, were probably brought from Constantinople, as also some of those in St. Marks, Venice. Panel width may be in the range 485 mm to 1360 mmm, and the height may be in the range of 1610 mm to 2735 mm. The safety sensor prevents the door from colliding with an object by stopping or slowing its motion. a Rabbet) on the vertical edge(s) where they meet. Early doors, used throughout Mesopotamia and the ancient world, were merely hides or textiles. ", "Front Doors, Garage Doors Insights from The Door Zone", "Doors in Venice: among water, art and architecture", https://gumroad.com/tales/p/upgrade-your-home-with-contemporary-flush-doors, "Why do the entry doors to most homes open inward, while in most public buildings, the entry doors open outward? 1. Panels – Large, wider boards used to fill the space between the stiles, rails, and mullions. A risk assessment of the door determines the appropriate level of protection. A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. Doorstops are simple devices that prevent a door from contacting and possibly damaging another object (typically a wall). In North America, the Door and Access Systems Manufacturing Association (DASMA) defines high-performance doors as non-residential, powered doors, characterized by rolling, folding, sliding or swinging action, that are either high-cycle (minimum 100 cycles/day) or high-speed (minimum 20 inches(508 mm)/second), and two out of three of the following: made-to-order for exact size and custom features, able to withstand equipment impact (break-away if accidentally hit by vehicle), or able to sustain heavy use with minimal maintenance. Rebated doors, a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap (i.e. Archaeological and literary evidence indicate its prevalence in Egypt and Mesopotamia. There are several methods by which an automatically opening door is activated: In addition to activation sensors, automatically opening doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. Doors for important chambers were often made of stone or bronze. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln. A door topped with a rounded arch and flanked by vertical rectangular areas of fixed glass on each side that are narrower than and usually not as high as the the door; suggestive of a Palladian window This includes items such as hinges, handles, door stops, etc. The other doors, probably about forty to fifty years later, are enriched with bas-reliefs, landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders. In domestic architecture, interior double doors appeared in Italy in the 15th century and then in the rest of Europe and the American colonies. Doors are generally made of a material suited to the door's task. The first bronze doors to be cast in one piece in northern Europe were made for the Cathedral of Hildesheim (c. 1015). Door Components and Door Types Regardless of whether the specified doors are wood or metal, the following components and door types are available. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails. Hollow casting of relief panels was revived in the 12th century in southern Italy, notably by Barisanus of Trani (cathedral doors, 1175), and carried northward by artists such as Bonanno of Pisa. Buildings often have special purpose doors that automatically close to prevent the spread of fire and smoke. German-made passive house doors use multiple weatherstrips, including magnetic strips, to meet higher standards. There is also handle-side door protection, which prevents the door from slamming shut on the frame, which can cause injury to fingers/hands. DIN 18101/1985 defines interior single molded doors to have a common panel height of 1985 mm (normativ height 2010 mm) at panel widths of 610 mm, 735 mm, 860 mm, 985 mm, 1110 mm, plus a larger door panel size of 1110 mm x 2110 mm. Full door protection uses front and rear anti-finger trapping devices and ensures the hinge side of a door is fully isolated. (Australian Standards for Installation of Timber Doorsets, AS 1909–1984 pg 6. Core material: Material within the door used simply to fill space, provide rigidity and reduce drumminess. There are simple devices available to attach to the hinge side, ensuring that this type of injury does not occur. Air may rush out of the fuselage with sufficient velocity to eject unsecured occupants, cargo, and other items, and drastic pressure differences between compartments may make aircraft floors or other interior partitions fail. In a fire, a door that opens inward could cause a crush of people who can't open it.. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. In the Renaissance period, Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect; but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. A garden door resembles a French window (with lites), but is more secure because only one door is operable.  The most common interior door is 860 mm x 1985 mm (33.8" x 78.1"). Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened (or forced open) from outside a building. A roller shutter or sectional overhead door is one variant of this type. Most modern exterior walls provide thermal insulation and energy efficiency, which can be indicated by the Energy Star label or the Passive House standards. Updates? Wooden doors – including solid wood doors – are a top choice for many homeowners, largely because of the aesthetic qualities of wood. Door guards protect fingers in door hinges by covering the hinge-side gap of an open door, typically with a piece of rubber or plastic that wraps from the door frame to the door. In Roman imperial times, however, the glazed window first definitely appeared, and fragments of glass in a bronze frame have been found in Pompeii, among other â¦ A swing door has special single-action hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed. Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Anatomy Of French Patio Doors. A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the doorway (portal). Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze show this was a universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. Evolution Door is a trackless door that moves in the same closure level as a sliding door. It is a door with lites where all or some panels would be in a casement door. Door, barrier of wood, stone, metal, glass, paper, leaves, hides, or a combination of materials, installed to swing, fold, slide, or roll in order to close an opening to a room or building. There are two primary quality standards referenced for wood doors: Architectural Woodwork Standards (AWS) Window & Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) For most commercial projects, ANSI/WDMA I.S.1A-13 is the current industry standard for interior architectural flush wood doors. When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom. 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